Main Article Content

Jarina B. Mazumdar
S. R. Nirmala


A biometric system provides an automatic person authentication based on some characteristic features possessed by the individual. Among all other biometrics, the retinal biometric system is unique as well as stable. The retina is a secure and reliable source of person recognition as it lies behind the eye and is unforgeable. The process of recognition mainly includes pre-processing, feature extraction and then feature matching. The features generally used in this process are either blood vessel features or non-blood vessel features. In this paper, different methods available in the literature for retina based person authentication system are described, discussed and compared.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details



S. Prabhakar, S. Pankanti, and A. K. Jain, “Biometric recognition: Security and privacy concerns,†IEEE security & privacy, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 33–42, 2003.

A. K. Jain, A. Ross, and S. Prabhakar, “An introduction to biometric recognition,†IEEE Transactions on circuits and systems for video technology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 4–20, 2004.

S. K. Sahoo, T. Choubisa, and S. M. Prasanna, “Multimodal biometric person authentication: A review,†IETE Technical Review, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 54–75, 2012.

K. A. Nixon, V. Aimale, and R. K. Rowe, “Spoof detection schemes,†in Handbook of biometrics, pp. 403–423, Springer, 2008.

L. R. Kumar and A. S. Babu, “Genuine and forged offline signature verification using back propagation neural networks,†IJCSIT) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, 2011.

S. Shankar, V. Udupi, and R. D. Gavas, “Biometric verification, security concerns and related issues-a comprehensive study,†2016.

I. Bhardwaj, N. D. Londhe, and S. K. Kopparapu, “A novel behavioural biometric technique for robust user authentication,†IETE Technical Review, pp. 1–13, 2016.

R. B. Hill, “Retina identification,†Biometrics, pp. 123–141, 2002.

R. Das, “Retinal recognition: Biometric technology in practice,†Keesing Journal of Documents & Identity, vol. 22, pp. 11–14, 2007.

M. Ortega, M. G. Penedo, J. Rouco, N. Barreira, and M. J. Carreira, “Personal verification based on extraction and characterisation of retinal feature points,†Journal of Visual Languages & Computing, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 80–90, 2009.

M. Ortega, C. Marino, M. Penedo, M. Blanco, and F. Gonzalez, “Biometric authentication using digital retinal images,†in Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS international conference on Applied computer science, pp. 422–427, 2006.

B. K. Ekka, N. Puhan, and R. Panda, “Retinal verification using point set matching,†in Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 159–163, IEEE, 2015.

H. Farzin, H. Abrishami-Moghaddam, and M.-S. Moin, “A novel retinal identification system,†EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, vol. 2008, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2008.

M. U. Akram, A. Tariq, and S. A. Khan, “Retinal recognition: Personal identification using blood vessels,†in Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST), 2011 International Conference for, pp. 180–184, IEEE, 2011.

S. Qamber, Z. Waheed, and M. U. Akram, “Personal identification system based on vascular pattern of human retina,†in Biomedical Engineering Conference (CIBEC), 2012 Cairo International, pp. 64–67, IEEE, 2012.

J. Fatima, A. M. Syed, and M. U. Akram, “A secure personal identification system based on human retina,†in Industrial Electronics and Applications (ISIEA), 2013 IEEE Symposium on, pp. 90–95, IEEE, 2013.

A. Arneodo, N. Decoster, and S. Roux, “A wavelet-based method for multifractal image analysis. i. methodology and test applications on isotropic and anisotropic random rough surfaces,†The European Physical Journal B-Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 567–600, 2000.

C. K¨ose, C. ˙Iki, et al., “A personal identification system using retinal vasculature in retinal fundus images,†Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 13670–13681, 2011.

M. Khakzar and H. Pourghassem, “A rotation invariant retina identification algorithm using tessellation-based spectral feature,†in Biomedical Engineering (ICBME), 2014 21th Iranian Conference on, pp. 309–314, IEEE, 2014.

S. M. Lajevardi, A. Arakala, S. A. Davis, and K. J. Horadam, “Retina verification system based on biometric graph matching,†IEEE transactions on image processing, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 3625–3635, 2013.

A. Hussain, A. Bhuiyan, A. Mian, and K. Ramamohanarao, “Biometric security application for person authentication using retinal vessel feature,†in Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Applications (DICTA), 2013 International Conference on, pp. 1–8, IEEE, 2013.

A. P. Condurache, J. Kotzerke, and A. Mertins, “Robust retina-based person authentication using the sparse classifier,†in Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO), 2012 Proceedings of the 20th European, pp. 1514–1518, IEEE, 2012.

A. Zahedi, H. Sadjedi, and A. Behrad, “A new retinal image processing method for human identification using radon transform,†in 2010 6th Iranian Conference on Machine Vision and Image Processing, pp. 1–4, IEEE, 2010.

Z. Waheed, A. Waheed, and M. U. Akram, “A robust non-vascular retina recognition system using structural features of retinal image,†in 2016 13th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST), pp. 101–105, IEEE, 2016.

E. P. Ong, Y. Xu, D. W. K. Wong, and J. Liu, “Retina verification using a combined points and edges approach,†in Image Processing (ICIP), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 2720–2724, IEEE, 2015.

H. Oinonen, H. Forsvik, P. Ruusuvuori, O. Yli-Harja, V. Voipio, and H. Huttunen, “Identity verification based on vessel matching from fundus images,†in 2010 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, pp. 4089–4092, IEEE, 2010.

M. Sabaghi, S. R. Hadianamrei, A. Zahedi, and M. N. Lahiji, “A new partitioning method in frequency analysis of the retinal images for human identification,†Journal of Signal and Information Processing, vol. 2, no. 04, p. 274, 2011.

M. Sabaghi, S. R. Hadianamrei, M. Fattahi, M. R. Kouchaki, and A. Zahedi, “Retinal identification system based on the combination of Fourier and wavelet transform,†2012.

A. Dehghani, Z. Ghassabi, H. A. Moghddam, and M. S. Moin, “Human recognition based on retinal images and using new similarity function,†EURASIP Journal on Image and Video Processing, vol. 2013, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2013.